by S. Lily Mendoza
In “Educating Savages,” intercultural communication scholar Richard Morris notes with poignancy that even when Native Americans realize their “true” history, there is in such realization “a sense of curiosity, even a sense of loss, but not quite a sense of longing.” Using perspectives in critical intercultural communication, this study seeks to uncover the mechanisms of domination in the discourse of modernity that makes nativist longing all but impossible for the assimilated native. Although I find insightful Morris’ formulation of the process of modern education as a form of violent transculturation for native subjects, I argue that such phenomenon cannot be fully explained without taking into account the particular ouvre of liberal ideology that underpins much of modern thought and education. To analyze the surreptitious ways by which liberal epistemology subverts nativist desire, the study revisits the material and psychic mechanisms of the colonial process, unpacks the hidden discourse of liberalism as its justifying content, and argues for the disavowal of liberalism’s premises as indispensable to empowering decolonization. It concludes by outlining the contours of an emerging counter-discourse, ‘anarcho-primitivism,’ as a way of breaking open modernity’s foreclosures and allowing the imagining of alternative human futures.
Berger, P. (1969). A Rumor of Angels: Modern Society and the Rediscovery of the Supernatural. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company.
Brantlinger, P. (1995). ‘Dying races’: Rationalizing genocide in the nineteenth century. In J. N. Pieterse & B. Parekh (Eds.), Decolonization of imagination: Culture, knowledge and power (pp. 43-56). London: Zed Books.
Churchill, W. (2004). Kill the Indian, save the man. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
Diamond, S. (1974). In search of the primitive: A critique of civilization. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York, NY: Avon Books, Inc.
Gowdy, J. (Ed.). (1998). Limited wants, unlimited means: A reader on hunter-gatherer economics and the environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Halualani, R.T. (2002). In the name of Hawaiians: Native identities and cultural politics. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Horwitz, T. (2008). A voyage long and strange: rediscovering the new world. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co.
Jensen, D. (2004). The culture of make believe. NY: Context Books.
Jensen, D. (2004). A language older than words. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Jensen, D. (2006). End game: The problem of civilization. Vol. I. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
Joaquin, N. (1988). Culture and history: Occasional notes on the process of Philippine becoming. Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing.
Jocano, F. L. (1975). Philippine prehistory: An anthropological overview of the beginnings of Filipino society and culture. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Advanced Studies, University of the Philippines System.
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co.
Mills, C. W. (1997). The racial contract. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Morris, R. (1997). Educating savages. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 83, 152-171.
Nicolacopoulus, T. (2008). The Radical Critique of Liberalism: In Memory of a Vision (Anamnesis). Melbourne, Australia: re.press.
Parekh, B. (1995), Liberalism and colonialism: A critique of Locke & Mill. In J. N. Pieterse & B. Parekh (Eds.), Decolonization of Imagination: Culture, Knowledge and Power (pp. 81-98). London: Zed Books.
Pratt, M. L. (1994). Transculturation and autoethnography: Peru 1615/1980. In F. Barker, P. Hulme, and M. Iversen. Colonial discourse/postcolonial theory (pp. 24-46). Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Quinn, D. (1992). Ishmael. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Sahlins, M. (1998). The original affluent society. In J. Gowdy (Ed.), Limited wants, unlimited means: A reader on hunter-gatherer economics and the environment (pp. 5-41). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Saussure, F. (1972). Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics. Trans. R. Harris. Paris: Editions Payot.
Shepard, P. (1973/1998). The tender carnivore and the sacred game. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Shepard, P. (1982/1998). Nature and madness. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Shepard, P. (1998). Coming home to the Pleistocene. Washington, D.C. : Island Press.
Shepard, P. (2002). Man in the landscape: A historic view of the esthetics of nature. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Shepard, P. (2003). Where we belong: Beyond abstraction in perceiving nature. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Shome, R. (1999). Whiteness and the politics of location: Postcolonial reflections. In T. K. Nakayama & J. Martin (Eds.), Whiteness and the communication of social identity Oakland (pp. 107-128). CA: Sage Publications.
Stannard, D. (1992). American holocaust: The conquest of the New World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wells, S. (2010). Pandora’s Seed: The unforeseen cost of civilization. NY: Random House.
Zerzan, J. (Ed.). (2005) Against civilization. Los Angeles: Feral House.